Glossary

Annual mortality--The volume of sound wood in tree died from natural causes during a specific year.

Annual removals--The net volume of trees removed from the inventory during a specified year by harvesting, cultural operations such as timber stand improvement, or land clearing.

Cull tree--A live tree, 5.0 inches in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) or larger, that is unmerchantable for saw logs prospectively because of rot, roughness, or species. (See definitions for rotten and rough trees.)

Forest land--Land at least 10 percent stocked by trees of any size, including land that formerly had such tree cover and that will be naturally or artificially regenerated. Forest land includes transition zones, such as areas between heavily forested and nonforested lands that are at leas t 10 percent stocked with forest trees and forest areas adjacent to urban and built-up lands. Also included are pinyon-juniper and chaparral areas in the West and afforested areas. The minimum area for classification of forest land is 1 acre. Roadside, streamside, and shelterbelt strips of timber must have a crown width of at least 120 feet to qualify as forest land. Unimproved roads and trails, streams, and clearings in forest areas are classified as forest if less than 120 feet wide.

Forest type--A classification of forest land based on the species presently forming a plurality of the live-tree stocking.

Major eastern forest-type groups:

White-red-jack-pine--Forests in which eastern white pine, red pine, or jack pine, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include hemlock, aspen, birch, and maple.

Spruce-fir--Forests in which spruce or true firs, sir in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include white-cedar, tamarack, maple, birch, and hemlock.

Longleaf-slash pine--Forests in which longleaf or pine, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of stocking. Common associates include other southern pines, oak, and gum.

Loblolly-shortleaf pine--Forests in which loblolly shortleaf pine, or southern yellow pines, except longleaf or slash pine, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include oak, hickory and gum.

Oak-pine--Forests in which hardwoods (usually upland oaks) make up a plurality of the stocking, but in which pine or eastern redcedar makes up 25-50 percent of the stocking. Common associates include gum, hickory yellow-poplar.

Oak-hickory--Forests in which upland oaks or hickory, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking except where pines make up 25-50 percent, in which case the stand is classified as oak-pine. Common associates include yellow-poplar, elm, maple, and black walnut.

Oak-gum-cypress--Bottomland forests in which tupelo, blackgum, sweetgum, oaks, or southern cypress, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking except where pines make up 25-50 percent, in which case the stand is classified as oak-pine. Common associates include cottonwood, willow, ash, elm, hackberry, and maple.

Elm-ash-cottonwood--Forests in which elm, ash, or cottonwood, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include willow, sycamore, beech, and maple.

Maple-beech-birch--Forests in which maple, beech, or yellow birch, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include hemlock, elm, basswood, and white pine.

Aspen-birch--Forests in which aspen, balsam poplar, paper birch, or gray birch, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include maple and balsam fir.

Major western forest-type groups:

Douglas-fir--Forests in which Douglas-fir makes up plurality of the stocking. Common associates include western hemlock, western redcedar, the true firs, redwood, ponderosa pine, and larch.

Hemlock-Sitka spruce--Forests in which western hemlock or Sitka spruce, or both, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, silver fir, and western redcedar.

Redwood--Forests in which redwood makes up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, grand fir, and tanoak.

Ponderosa pine--Forests in which ponderosa pine makes up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Jeffrey pine, sugar pine, limber pine, Arizona pine, Apache pine, Chihuahua pine, Douglas-fir, incense-cedar, and white fir.

Western white pine--Forests in which western pine makes up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include western redcedar, larch, white fir, Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce.

Lodgepole pine--forests in which lodgepole pine makes up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include alpine fir, western white pine, Engelmann spruce, aspen, and larch.

Larch--Forests in which western larch makes up a' plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, grand fir, western redcedar, and wester pine.

Fir-spruce--Forests in which true firs, Engelmann or Colorado blue spruce, singly or in combination, make up a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include mountain hemlock and lodgepole pine.

Western hardwoods--Forests in which aspen, red or other western hardwoods, singly or in combination make up a plurality of the stocking.

Pinyonjuniper--Forests in which pinyon pine or juniper, or both, make up a plurality of the stocking.

Growing stock--A classification of timber inventory that includes live trees of commercial species meeting specified standards of quality or vigor. Cull trees are excluded. When associated with volume, includes only trees 5.0 inches and larger.

Hardwood--A dicotyledonous tree, usually broad-leaved and deciduous.

Industrial wood--All commercial roundwood product except fuelwood.

Net annual growth--The net increase in the volume trees during a specified year. Components include the increment in net volume of trees at the beginning of the specific year surviving to its end, plus the net volume reaching the minimum size class during the year, minus the volume of trees that died during the year, and minus the volume of trees that became cull trees during the year.

Net volume in cubic feet--The gross volume in cubic feet less deductions for rot, roughness, and poor form. Volume is computed for the central stem from a 1-foot-high stump to the point where the diameter of the outside bark equals 4 inches, or to the point where the central stem breaks into limbs.

Nonstocked area--Timberland less than 10 percent stocked with growing stock trees.

Other forest land--Forest land other than timberland and reserved timberland. It includes available and reserve unproductive forest land that is incapable of producing. annually 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood under natural conditions because of adverse site conditions Such as sterile soils, dry climate, poor drainage, high elevation, steepness, or rockiness.

Other removals--Unutilized wood volume from cut or otherwise killed growing stock, from nongrowing stock sources on timberland (for example, precommercial thinnings), or from timberland clearing. Does not include volume removed from inventory through reclassification of timberland to reserved timberland.

Other sources--Sources of roundwood products that are nongrowing stock. These include salvable dead trees, rough and rotten trees, trees of noncommercial species, trees less than 5.0 inches d.b.h., tops, and roundwood harvested from nonforest land (for example, fence rows).

Productivity class--A classification of forest land in items of potential annual cubic-foot volume growth per acre at culmination of mean annual increment in fully stocked natural stands.

Reserved timberland--Forest land that would otherwise be classified as timberland except that it is withdrawn from timber utilization by statute or administrative regulation.

Rotten tree--A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of rot (that is, when rot accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume).

Rough tree- (a) A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of roughness (that is, when sound cull due to such factors as poor form, splits, or cracks accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume) or (b) a live tree of noncommercial species.

Softwood--A coniferous tree, usually evergreen, having needles or scalelike leaves.

Stocking--The degree of occupancy of lands by trees, measured by basal area or number of trees by size and spacing, or both, compared to a stocking standard; that is, the basal area or number of trees, or both, required to fully utilize the growth potential of the land.

Timberland--Forest land that is producing or is capable of producing crops of industrial wood and not withdrawn from timber utilization by statute or administrative regulation. (Note: Areas qualifying as timberland are capable of producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood in natural stands. Currently inaccessible and inoperable areas are included.)

Unreserved forest land--Forest land that is not withdrawn from use by statute or administrative regulation.

Weight--The weight of wood and bark, oven-dry basis (approximately 12 percent moisture content).

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